Kiev in the XVII-XX centuries
After the Pereyaslav Rada population of Kiev has taken an oath to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, and then there was placed Russian garrison of archers and Reiter, who defended city during the Russian-Polish war in 1654-1667. From 1625 to 1708 Kiev was a regimental center of Kiev regiment (administrative-territorial and military unit of Zaporizhia Army).
After the conclusion of Andrusovo armistice in 31 January of 1667 Rzeczpospolita ceded Smolensk and Left Bank Ukraine to Russian kingdom. And in 1721Kiev became center of Kiev province.
In the XVII century stretched along shore area of Kiev located only on the right side of the Dnieper. City was divided into three separate parts: Lower Town (Podol), Upper town with St. Sophia Cathedral and St. Michael's Monastery and Pechersk. Kiev part united in monolithic formation only in XIX century.
In 1708, when Russian kingdom had the first division on provinces, Kiev province, which included 55 cities with the provincial city of Kiev was established correspondingly. Kiev province became a part of the Russian Empire after October 22, 1721, when in St. Petersburg Trinity Cathedral Tsar Peter I was presented to the title of "Emperor", and after this the arrange of the Russian kingdom has changed into empire.
In 1862, the Kiev military district of the Imperial Russian Army of the Russian Empire was created instead of the 1st Army. And to make city stronger in the XIX century a Kyiv fortress was opened, which was built in 1679 under the leadership of Hetman Samoilovich.
At the end of the XIX century during the Russian industrial revolution Kyiv became an important trade and transportation center of the Russian Empire. This area specialized in sugar and grain export. And in 1900 Kiev became powerful industrial center with a population of 250 thousand persons.