The times of Kievan Rus'
There is a legend, according to which at the end of V - beginning of VI century BC three brothers Kyi, Schek and Horeb, along with their sister Lybid founded the city on the banks of the Dnieper River and named it in honor of his older brother Kiev. The place was very well chosen, as the slopes of the river have good protection against attacks of the enemy tribes. Kiev in the palaces of kings settled on Old Kiev Hill, and in the lower part of the city, which is now the hem, lived merchants and artisans.
By the end of the IX century BC Kiev became the political and cultural center of the Eastern Slavs and powerful state in Europe. Especially the development of the city reached during the reign of Vladimir the Great (980-1015), who in 988 was baptized Kiev Rus, which brought the state political benefits. Under Vladimir in Kiev, built the first stone church - Church of the Tithes.
In the XI century the rules of Kiev, Yaroslav the Wise, who was able to turn the Kievan Rus in one of the largest centers of civilization. There were built Sophia Cathedral, the first library in Russia. Even then, there were about 400 churches. But after the death of Vladimir Monomakh in 1125 Kiev State begins to disintegrate, and by the middle of the XII century is situated on the territory of many independent principalities and take advantage of the Mongol-Tatars, who in 1240 captured the Kievan Rus. Almost a hundred years, they dominated the Ukrainian lands, but Kiev still retain their ancient traditions. In the XV century Kyiv received Magdeburg Law, and in 1569 became a member of the Commonwealth after the Union of Lublin was signed.
In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky led the armed struggle against oppressors Ukrainians. But because of an insufficient number of forces, the hetman was forced to seek help fr om the Russian Tsar, and an alliance with Russia in 1654 in Pereyaslav. Later Ukraine for a long time fell under the rule of the Russian empire after the death of Ivan Mazepa, who was trying to struggle against the tsarist regime.
But Kiev still remained a cultural center, wh ere the concentration was in the minds of Kiev-Mohyla Academy. Some scientists have gained wide acceptance throughout Europe.
Social reforms in 1861 and the abolition of serfdom made a difference in the lives of Kiev, which led to an increase in the number of hospitals, educational institutions. In the year 1860 it was constructed Odessa-Kursk railway line and Kiev became a major transportation and commercial center. In 1892, in Kiev was launched Russia's first electric tram (and the second in Europe).
After the revolution in Kiev, the government replaced three independent Ukrainian state in the period from 1917 to 1921. In 1918, the Central Rada led Hrushevsky proclaimed the independence of Ukraine. Soon, however, the Red Army attacked the Ukraine. In 1912, the Ukrainian People's Republic headed by Simon Petlura teamed up with the Western Ukrainian People's Republic. But soon the shelves last defeated by Polish invaders in the Soviet troops drove part Petlura from Kiev.
In 1922, the Soviet Union was created, which included the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In Stalin's time, many of the best representatives of Ukrainian culture and science came under the millstone of the Gulag and ended their lives in Siberia, and Magadan.
During World War II Kiev was almost completely destroyed. The defense of the city lasted 72 days, but the September 19, 1941 troops of Nazi Germany broke through the defenses. It is they who are guilty of the Babi Yar tragedy, which was turned into a place of mass executions. We liberated the city of November 6, 1943.
After the war Kyiv rebuilt. A 26 April 1986 shuddered with the whole world after the Chernobyl disaster.
The independence of Ukraine
The end of the 80s showed futility of socialist path of development, the promise of communism did not wait and the first president of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev heads for "restructuring". From the socialist camp begin to emerge one after another of the country. July 6, 1990 the Ukrainian parliament proclaimed the sovereignty of Ukraine. August 24, 1991 the Supreme Council of Ukraine proclaims the Declaration of Independence. December 1, 1991 the country's population in a national referendum vote for independence (93% of the vote). He becomes the first president Leonid Kravchuk.